CKCA supporting members with their skilled labour shortage concerns

August 2022

Written by Chris George, CG&A Communications and CKCA Communications Advisor

We have all become too familiar with the realities of Canada’s skilled labour shortages. Two-thirds of Canadian businesses struggle to hire workers and a quarter have difficulties retaining employees. Skills Canada documents a 40 per cent shortage in skilled trades today and this is projected to grow as workers age and retire.

Certainly, the country’s skilled labour shortage is impacting all areas of Canada’s business community. Given its critical importance, CKCA is actively supporting its membership by keeping a pulse on the issues at play and by providing tools for members to profile their businesses and attract new employees.

CKCA keeps its members abreast of the latest news, whether it is the data from Statistics Canada Labour Report or a new government program for skilled trades. For example, recently a 2022 StatsCan study was shared that provided current insights into private sector business strategies to deal with personnel recruitment, retention and training.

A 3M Canada survey tells us that there is much work to still be done to attract students to consider a career in skilled trades. Even though 96 per cent agree that the country’s workforce needs more skilled trades workers, three in four Canadians (76 per cent) say they would never pursue a skilled trade for themselves.

This 3M survey also revealed that nine in 10 (92 per cent) believe there is a lot of opportunity in skilled trades, and 91 per cent trust vocational or trade schools to give them the education needed to have a successful career. Eight in 10 (81 per cent) believe they would earn as much money in a skilled trade as they would in a career that requires a university degree.

With this appreciation for skilled trades, it remains a wonder why young people do not consider a career in a trades business. In a recent Forbes Magazine interview, CEO Mark Perna of consulting firm TFS urged employers to target messaging about the value of skilled trade careers to young workers, their parents, friends, classmates and teachers. Also, Perna asserts young people need to know more about the significant financial incentives in pursuing a career in the skilled trades.

On this point, CKCA is supporting its members by developing materials that better describes our businesses and the varied career opportunities within our industry. The Communications Committee is developing presentations for business and community meetings, for student tours, school visits and to share with guidance and career counsellors.

Statistics tell us that skilled labour challenges will be with all trades, manufacturers and retailers for years to come. We must all plan accordingly. CKCA’s efforts on this issue are aimed to give members a competitive advantage when dealing with the attraction and retention of employees.

CKCA Launches the National Forum 2022 Program and Registration

It’s been a long haul!

Actually it’s been 31 months by the time we deliver our first face-to-face event for the industry.

So we are VERY excited about hosting our first in-person national event focused on the kitchen cabinet industry in Canada and you don’t want to miss it!

Networking – Learning – Connecting

Amazing plant tours. Industry experts. Lots of talk time.

Build those important business connections to help your business prosper.

Want more details? Click here and visit our National Forum page. Don’t miss out on this great opportunity. We look forward to welcoming you to Waterloo, Ontario September 28 – October 1, 2022.

Celebrating Canadian Kitchen Cabinetry on Canada Day 2022 and Year Round

July 2022

This Canada Day we will be waving maple leaf flags for our country’s 155th birthday celebration. CKCA encourages all kitchen cabinet manufacturers to harness their sense of pride on this day and display “Made in Canada” on their products all year round.

In an industry that predates our country’s Confederation, Canadian wood crafting and kitchen cabinetry is well respected world-wide for its quality. This is something special to share with consumers.

Much like our country’s history of its earliest immigrants, Canadian kitchen cabinetry has its origins in the finest European traditions. From those earliest days when John Jacques and Robert Hays were developing mass production techniques in Upper Canada, the industry has proven to be very innovative. The craftmanship has evolved through centuries to develop into what is today an uniquely Canadian product. Today there is a wide range of cabinet designs and products, but they all reflect a superior Canadian quality.

From a consumer’s perspective there are good economic reasons to buy Canadian, the greatest being that we are supporting Canadian labour and local businesses. In purchasing a Canadian product, consumers avoid the hidden costs of import duties and fees. There are no supply-chain issues and local service and sales mean direct, personal service.

There is also the fact that every dollar spent on a Canadian product has a ripple effect in our country – helping to support our local community’s economy and the multiple businesses and services that have supported the crafting and installation of your kitchen cabinetry.

There are other benefits that we often do not factor. For example, a Canadian product must meet the high regulatory criteria of Canada’s Health and Safety standards. A Canadian product also meets the environmental regulations that are set for manufacturing goods. Further to safety standards and environmental controls, our country’s businesses adhere to Canada’s employment standards.

From a business point of view there is good reason to be promoting our Canadian legacy. From a consumer’s point of view it is rewarding to know the purchase of a Canadian product helps fellow Canadians and our country’s economy.

So, proudly display the maple leaf on your product tags and packaging and in your marketing and social media. CKCA has promotional media badges to highlight our Canadian-built products to customers. We also have a compelling list of reasons to buy Canadian kitchen cabinets. Click here for more information:

And, join CKCA in displaying the maple leaf. Happy Canada Day!

CKCA stands with CMC on EI reform

CKCA is a member of the Canadian Manufacturing Coalition (CMC) and attended a recent meeting that invited the EI Employers Commissioner, Nancy Healy to provide an overview of the EI reform currently underway. Proposed changes pose concerns for employers still recovering from the impact of Covid-19.

As a group, the CMC discussed that reform of EI should lessen the burden on employers and not add to it. While there is no question that the EI system is in need of updating (it has been 25 years since the last revisions were done),  the challenges business face in Canada are substantial as we experience unprecedented labour shortages. Most recent statistics revealed there are approximately 1 million jobs in Canada now available and we are at record lows for unemployment rates.

Therefore CKCA, along with a number of other manufacturing industries have written to Government asking for meaningful reform of the EI system that strikes the right balance for the employer and the employee. Consideration must be given for the challenges business currently face. The current plans include passing along some of the EI costs to employers in the form of increased premiums, meanwhile increasing the EI benefits to employees.

EI must be responsive and available to the unemployed workers while they seek other employment, but benefits should not act as a disincentive to work.  The EI system should remain as a temporary job-loss protection program.

Without sufficient workers, industry will be forced to reduce capacity, which our industry is already experiencing, or even worse, face closing. Closed business will diminish the Government’s ability to collect much needed funds to support EI benefits. Increasing business costs continue to threaten business in Canada and our ability to compete globally. The kitchen cabinet sector faces these challenges with the low cost of foreign kitchen cabinet imports. Therefore it is critical that  Government policy and reform of existing systems help to support and strengthen Canadian industry.

We’ll keep you posted on how this progresses in the weeks ahead.

Overview of Government’s Review here »

Current Consultation (ending July 29) here»

Institute for Research on Public Policy here»


CKCA Members Elect 2022/2023 Board of Directors

June 1, 2022

The Canadian Kitchen Cabinet Association held their 2022 Annual Meeting on Wednesday, May 25 at 2pm (EDT) via Zoom.

Members voted to elect by acclamation the Board of Directors for 2022/2023. Immediately following the AGM, the newly elected Board then appointed the Executive Officers.  Current president, Heidi Boudreault has now completed her term as President and moves to the Past-President position.

  • Pete Fournier, Triangle Kitchen – President
  • Amrita Bhogal, Sunrise Kitchens – Vice-President
  • James Dewinetz, Pacific Rim Cabinets – Treasurer
  • Heidi Boudreault, Denca Cabinets – Past-President
  • Sandra Wood, CKCA Staff – Secretary


  • Trevor Chaulk, Chaulk Woodworking – (new)
  • Craig Atkinson, Marathon Hardware
  • Joerg Brauns, 2020 – Director
  • Giuseppe Castrucci, Laurysen Kitchens
  • Earl Ducharme, Hafele Canada
  • Varun Gajendran, Lucvaa Kitchens
  • Gerald Van Woudenberg, Van Arbour Design
  • Luke Elias, Muskoka Cabinet Company
  • Wes Love, Taurus Craco

CKCA would also like to acknowledge and sincerely thank departing Board member Mike Slobodian, Decor Cabinets who also served as CKCA President 2018 – 2020.

Link to Board members photos and bios can be found here.

CKCA President, Pete Fournier says: 

“CKCA is excited to continue the work we have been doing on behalf of our industry. We were thrilled to have a new industry professional step forward, especially given how busy our industry is. As Mike Slobodian of Decor Cabinets completes his term and steps down, we want to take this opportunity to thank Mike for all has done to help the association, which included serving as a CKCA President for two years. We continue to have a strong Board and active committees that are working on critical issues impacting our industry including the labour shortage and technology adoption. It’s important the industry comes together through CKCA to speak up and find the solutions we need to ensure our industry continues to thrive in Canada.”

The CKCA National Forum will be held September 28 – October 1 in Waterloo, Ontario. Details will be coming out this summer.

CKCA established in 1968, is a national trade association representing the kitchen cabinet industry in Canada. CKCA works to inspire progress and innovation in the industry, by promoting excellence, facilitating continuous improvement and working to ensure high standards for design and manufacturing are upheld

If you have any questions please contact Sandra Wood, CKCA Executive Director at 613-493-5858 or for more details.


Labour shortage is a very serious issue for kitchen cabinet industry (Part 2)

The Canadian Kitchen Cabinet Association is active in pursuing solutions to the shortage of skilled labour in the kitchen cabinet industry. It is working with its partnering associations, the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters and Canadian Federation of Independent Business, to track the complex issues surrounding labour shortages. CKCA is engaged on a number of fronts: attracting and retaining skilled labour, increasing awareness of attractive career opportunities within the industry, and advocating for better immigration and foreign workers programs. There are interesting developments in each of these areas.

In a recent report, the Conference Board of Canada and the Future Skills Centre assessed that the unrealized value of Canada’s skills shortage is equivalent to 1.3 percent of the country’s GDP. This unrealized value has  topped $25 billion in 2020, up from $15 billion in 2015. All levels of government recognize this is a critical problem and are finding ways to encourage greater numbers of skilled tradespeople. For example, in Ontario, the provincial government launched Skilled Trades Ontario, a new Crown agency, to improve trades training and simplify services. The new agency will promote and market the trades, develop the latest training and curriculum standards, and provide a streamlined user-friendly experience for tradespeople. It is hoped that the agency can deliver more skilled workers for in-demand jobs.

Specific to the kitchen cabinet industry, CKCA is supportive of the training program at the Centre for Advanced Wood Processing. The new program’s objective is to attract professionals and entrepreneurs to the wood products industry. Kudos to CAWP for opening the program to people without a background in wood products, who are preparing to take on supervisory or management roles in the industry.

CKCA is also working with four leading industry groups to offer an online jobs portal that will make it easier to promote job opportunities and attract new skilled workers to woodworking. Companies can post “help wanted” ads free-of-charge on in order to connect with potential candidates.

Effective immigration policies and foreign workers programs are necessary for Canada to increase the size of the country’s workforce. Canada needs one million workers over the next five years according to the latest federal analysis. This has prompted Ottawa, in early April, to give several provinces the ability to hire significantly more temporary foreign workers as part of changes to its immigration rules. The changes are meant to streamline the application process for employers.

In conjunction with this, the federal government is accepting 1.3 million new immigrants over the next three years, in part, to help fill critical labour shortages. On the surface this needs to be applauded. However, it is disturbing to learn that the government has actually cut its target for skilled workers because of the existing backlog of 1.8 million immigrants in the queue to be processed. In fact, some reports indicate Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada has paused new invitations altogether because the department cannot process them.

There is no silver bullet to solving Canada’s labour shortage. It is the reason why CKCA is approaching the issues in a multifaceted manner. It is essential the Association continues to foster and support educational and awareness initiatives, attract new talent from available pools of executive and skilled workers, and work with government to improve immigration and foreign worker programs.

If you are interested in knowing more details about what CKCA is doing regarding the shortage of skilled tradespeople, or wish to join our efforts in advancing industry solutions, connect with the CKCA executive director Sandra Wood –

What did we say in Part 1?  Read here

What does the 2022 budget do for kitchen cabinet manufacturing in Canada?

Sandra Wood headshotApril 19, 2022

Sandra Wood, Executive Director, CKCA

The Federal Government’s budget announced in early April, 2022 has left business community wondering if current Government spending will move the dial on issues impacting industry in this country. Both the CFIB (Canadian Federation of Independent Business) and the CME (Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters) had something to say about it. CFIB’s President, Dan Kelly,  stated that overall the budget was a missed opportunity to help independent business, but CFIB continues to ask Government for more help because business is still  reeling from the pains of Covid. See their full response here.

More recently, CFIB is also asking Government to reconsider the forgivable portion of the CEBA loan, decisions of which have yet to be made although government admitted to continuing the conversation. CFIB, like many other organizations including CKCA,  know that “if you don’t ask, you don’t get” and sometimes those asks have to be made for years before we see any tangible results. CFIB has done an amazing job these past 2 plus years in particular,  lobbying for the interests of business in Canada and Government has listened and acted. Many of us know that CFIB was on the front lines when Covid first hit, telling Government to increase financial aid to business – and they did. In CFIB’s recent business survey it was revealed from those who responded to the survey that only 2 in 5 companies are making normal sales (42%), just over a third reported no pandemic related debt (35%) and less than 1 in 5 indicated they are not holding any pandemic-related stress (18%). Businesses are still challenged with tremendous difficulty keeping up with general costs, such as gas and inputs (90%), and with government costs, such as taxes and fees (82%). A majority are also struggling to find employees, get the products they need, and ultimately make a profit. While the kitchen cabinet industry has been operating throughout the pandemic with work surging, our industry is by no means immune to the impacts and increased costs of doing business.

The CME also responded to the budget and  saw the positives and negatives to the budget. Dennis Darby, CME President said “The budget offers important and helpful measures to stimulate innovation and implement and promote long term economic growth and ease supply chain issues, but it fails to address labour shortages. This is a miss.”

While pleased to see several measures designed to improve Canada’s innovation and investment performance, CME points out that the creation of a Canadian Innovation and Investment Agency which is designed to help businesses make the investments needed to innovate and grow, must have a clear mandate that is agile and aligns with industry needs if the agency is going to deliver on its mandate. Full comments from CME can be found here.

But like so many announcements in the budget, one can’t help but wonder how change will materialize from these initiatives.

Both CFIB and CME acknowledged the tax measures that are good, including the increase of taxable capital limits on the small business tax rate from $15 million to $50 million plus a strategy to establish Employee Ownership Trusts to support employee ownership (could be an important succession option for those looking to exit their business).  There are other initiatives such as the  introduction of  a Labour Mobility Deduction, could also be helpful because it  will allow a tradespersons to deduct up to $4,000/year in eligible travel and temporary relocation expenses starting in 2022 (to encourage the  movement of tradespeople across the country). The Government will examine the rollover provisions for small business investments which allows investors to defer tax on capital gains to ensure the tax system is providing adequate support to growing business.

But as CME noted, the disruptions in supply chain (which is causing losses in the $billions to industry) combined with the many other pressing issues begs the question, will these new budget measures be deployed quickly?

CKCA was talking to a member very recently who has gone through a frustrating Government grant process. The first two times they completed the process, they had success. On a third application following the same processes for the same funds again, the company was forced to spend many valuable hours going through the application process which even included a requirement of getting every employee in their shop to confirm that the employer did not “in any way” help them with completing the employee section of the application. All that time wasted because they were declined funding. It begs the question “Why?”, when on the previous two occasions it worked.

It’s this kind of red tape that creates so much frustration. While Government budget announcements sound good, how much of that money actually makes it to where it’s supposed to go? Another program designed to assist business is the Digital Adoption Program. In speaking with another CKCA member, they have applied for this but are now “stuck in the verification process.” These programs are still worth trying, but as CFIB has pointed out, there is a lot of red tape, so much so that you may want to check out their  “Red Tape Awareness Week“.

The good news is that CFIB was successful in getting  the Federal Minister of Finance, Chrystia Freeland on to a Zoom call on Thursday, April 14 at 3pm. It was good of the Minister to make the time and shows the level of respect that CFIB has carved out with Government.

Minister Freeland openly admitted that she could not “please everyone” and made decisions that in her view were “to pursue a fiscally responsible set of policies.” She added that “I have a lot of confidence in the bank of Canada. It will do its job to get inflation back to target.”  The Minister did point out that “The inflationary pressures we are feeling today are principally global”, citing actions of Putin, Covid readjustments, high prices for agricultural product and supply chain on a global scale.

The Minister further stated that “It’s important to diagnose the problem accurately before discussing solutions.  The Federal Government can and should help with the labour shortage.”  It was good to hear the Minister acknowledge the labour shortage issue, but she went on to remind us that other countries are in worse shape than we are on the labour front. In some ways it felt like we were being told to be thankful for what we have and stop complaining. At CKCA we hear about the impact of the labour shortage almost daily from industry. Regardless of how we fare compared to other nations,  the situation is not getting better, and Government needs to create initiatives that are nimble enough to act quickly and effectively. Because let’s be honest, this isn’t news. The labour shortage trend has been coming a long time. Even the Wood Manufacturing Council noted it in their 2016 report that was done in conjunction with the Conference Board of Canada. Report here. Surely with all the Government funded studies out there, Government has known about this trend for some time?

And therein lies the elephant in the room again. Because now we see the Government allocating $4 billion to an “housing accelerator fund” which goes to municipalities to cut the red tape at the municipal level to speed up housing developments across Canada. It also appears Government is taking measures to remove barriers for temporary foreign workers and immigrants to Canada (although having spoken to other industry organizations, the barriers to entry into Canada are still governed by very dated policies). According to Minister Freeland, Canada has the fastest growing population in the G7. To accommodate the increase in immigration, we need housing. To increase housing, we need more immigration as our workforce. Therein lies the chicken or egg problem.

So more good news is that for the kitchen cabinet industry, there’s no shortage of work anytime soon. In this new normal, it’s not about work shortages, its about labour shortages and supply shortages and increasing costs. The Government is a proponent of competitiveness and funding is available for automation, provided you meet the criteria and have the bandwidth to go through the various applications required. But in the end, it boils down to Government programs that can be navigated more easily, that are cohesive and nimble and that address the pressing issues voiced by organizations such as CFIB, CME and many others. For those of us in manufacturing, we know we are the economic engine of the Canadian economy. Budget 2022 takes some small steps that skim the surface of the complex issues that lie beneath, but it definitely leaves business and especially those in the home building sector, in a pressurized state for the foreseeable future.

Read CBC article here»

Call for Nominations to CKCA Board of Directors 2022

Are you passionate about the kitchen cabinet industry?

Do you want to bring your knowledge and expertise to help steer a national dialogue in our industry?

Want to expand your network and gain a greater understanding of what is happening in the kitchen cabinet industry across Canada?

Then please consider putting your name forward for election to the board of directors of the CKCA.

If we receive multiple nominations, there will be an election.

The mission and vision of the Canadian Kitchen Cabinet Association (CKCA) is to inspire progress and innovation in the Canadian kitchen manufacturing industry, by promoting excellence, facilitating continuous improvement and working to ensure high standards for design and manufacturing are upheld by members, as well as to build strong relationships and enduring trust between CKCA members and the consumers, builders and industry partners whose support ensures the success of our members.

If you are interested in standing for election to the board of directors of the CKCA, please review the criteria below, and download the fillable form. Complete it and save it before sending back to us by email.

Complete this form»

Send application form back to the CKCA (by e-mail, for convenience) no later than
April 28, 2022

Please address your application to:

  • Mike Slobodian
  • CKCA Past President and Chair, CKCA Nominations Committee
  • Email:

Duties / Responsibilities of each Director of the CKCA:

  • You have the time to commit at least 3 years to the board of directors
  • Once elected, should you wish to move on to an Officer position in the future (President, VP, Treasurer), both Manufacturing or Supplier members are eligible [Section 8.2(a)] to hold these offices. It is recommended that during the first 3-year term, you express interest in an officer position.
  • You will prepare for and attend several meetings of the board of directors per year
  • You are willing to sit on one or more committees of the CKCA (such as the communications committee, program committee, membership committee, advocacy committee etc.).For more information on the roles and responsibilities of the Directors, please contact Sandra Wood, Executive Director, CKCA at or 613-493-5858

Number of Directors: The board of directors of the CKCA consists of 13 individuals from among the manufacturing members and the supplier members.

Number of Open Seats on the Board of Directors: At the May 2022 annual meeting, the voting members of the CKCA will be asked to elect one new director representing either the manufacturing or supplier membership category.

Qualifications and Eligibility: In accordance with the CKCA by-laws:

  • You are a member or are employed by a member of CKCA from either the manufacturer[1] or supplier[2] categories [section 5.1]
  • You are at least 18 years of age, have not been declared incapable by a court in Canada or in another country, and you do not currently have the status of a bankrupt
  • You have the support of at least 2 members or current directors of the CKCA

Composition of the Board of Directors: At least 50% of the Board shall be composed of Directors representing Manufacturer Members, with the remainder of the Board composed of Directors representing Supplier Members. [section 5.1]

Term: The term of each director is 3 years. Directors may serve 3 consecutive terms before having to take a break from the board of directors (for a total of 9 years) [section 5.3].

[1] Manufacturer member is defined in CKCA’s by-laws as follows: Any person, firm or corporation engaged in the kitchen cabinet and bathroom vanity industry that manufactures factory finished cabinets in Canada, or other country, approved by the Board of Directors. [section 1.1(l)]

[2] Supplier member is defined in CKCA’s by-laws as follows: Any person, firm or corporation who provides goods or services used by kitchen cabinet and bathroom vanity manufacturers to produce the cabinets. These include, but are not limited to, manufacturers and suppliers of: countertops, hardware, laminates, cabinet doors, coatings and finishing products, edgebanding, lumber and panel products, equipment, and computer software companies. A supplier member is not eligible for membership in any other category. [section 1.1(y)]

Labour shortage is a very serious issue for kitchen cabinet industry (Part 1)

It cannot be overstated: the Canadian kitchen cabinet industry is facing a serious labour shortage issue – and there are signs that it will get worse if the industry and government does not immediately take action. The Canadian Kitchen Cabinet Association is sounding the alarm bell to heighten awareness and accelerate strategies to attract and retain workers in the industry.

In its Fall 2021 study on labour shortages in our country, the Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC) reported:Labour shortage is not a new phenomenon in Canada, yet the pressure has intensified in recent years. More than half (55%) of Canadian entrepreneurs are struggling to hire the workers they need, leaving them with no choice but to work more hours, as well as delay or refuse new orders.”

There are many signs that the situation may have passed the tipping point.

  • Ontario Chamber of Commerce reported a total of 62 percent of Ontario businesses are confronting labour shortages and they expect this to be a long-term problem.
  • Canadian Apprenticeship Forum states skilled trades require an average of 75,000 new apprentices to be hired every year in the next five years in order to meet the demand.
  • Buildforce Canada reports the construction industry requires 309,000 new recruits by 2030.

What kitchen cabinet businesses are experiencing with its labour force is not unique, yet this industry must find solutions to its labour shortage issues or its future prosperity – perhaps survival – is in question. This industry in Canada employs almost 25,000 and Statistics Canada employment figures reveal there is currently a ten percent job vacancy rate. So, there is a significant shortfall of labour today.

Then there is the matter of a greying workforce. The federal government recently launched a campaign to promote skilled trades after its recent projections that estimate 700,000 skilled trades workers are expected to retire between 2019 and 2028. On this point, one CKCA member revealed that his company will have 40 percent of its workforce retiring in the next five years.

Technology also creates a challenge for all skilled labour industries. The World Economic Forum estimates that 44 percent of the skills that employees currently have will need to change by 2025. So, industries today must not only plan to recruit and train thousands, but adopt upskilling and engagement strategies that will retain talent – just in order to keep the doors open.

To address this complex issue, the CKCA advanced a policy statement on the skilled labour shortage in Canada:

The CKCA and the Wood Manufacturing Council calls for support from industry and government in: 1) communicating the benefits of working in the kitchen cabinet industry, while building educational programs that include mentorship and relevant skills training, 2) financial assistance for the retention and re-training of employees for shops investing in automation and continuous improvement, and 3) creating a support network that promotes and makes more accessible existing tools that address shared labour challenges. (CKCA policy statement can be read here.)

Watch for – Part 2: CKCA reviews proposed solutions addressing the labour shortage problem in Canada.

CKCA launches Manufacturers Roundtable – Monthly

FACT: Manufacturers are facing unprecedented challenges and the need to connect with each other has never been greater.

Exclusive and FREE to Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers across Canada!
Sign up is easy!
Just email us to get the calendar reminder and Zoom link details.


Zoom calls monthly, attend whenever you wish, same Zoom link, doesn’t matter if there’s 2 people or 30, we’ll run it!


Last Thursday of every month 1 – 2 pm (ET) – Starts March 31 (ET)


Must be: Kitchen cabinet manufacturer or Dealer in Canada


Nope! We want this to be informal, free flow convo!
Can’t always commit?
That’s ok, attend some, skip some whatever suits your schedule